Theophylline (Aquaphyllin®, Elixophyllin®, Theolair®, Truxophyllin®, and many others) can prevent or treat shortness of breath, wheezing, and other breathing problems caused by asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other lung diseases. Vitamin B6 is widely distributed in foods in both its free and bound forms. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:3-12. Br J Nutr 1999;81:7-20. Vitamin B6 is found in a wide variety of foods [1,3,4]. Plasma PLP concentrations are also low in patients receiving maintenance kidney dialysis or intermittent peritoneal dialysis, as well as those who have undergone a kidney transplant, perhaps due to increased metabolic clearance of PLP . Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. [, Wyatt KM, Dimmock PW, Jones PW, Shaughn O'Brien PM. For a reader-friendly overview of Vitamin B6, see our consumer fact sheet on Vitamin B6. Dietary supplement use in the United States, 2003-2006. In: Shils M, Shike M, Ross A, Caballero B, Cousins R, eds. 2008 Oct;13(3):557-9. In the United States, adults obtain most of their dietary vitamin B6 from fortified cereals, beef, poultry, starchy vegetables, and some non-citrus fruits [1,3,5]. High intakes of vitamin B6 from food sources have not been reported to cause adverse effects . In infants, vitamin B6 deficiency causes irritability, abnormally acute hearing, and convulsive seizures . Epilepsy Behav Case Rep 2015;4:94-5. PLP concentrations of more than 30 nmol/L have been traditional indicators of adequate vitamin B6 status in adults . Two large randomized controlled trials, the Norwegian Vitamin Trial and the Western Norway B Vitamin Intervention Trial, did include a group that received only vitamin B6 supplements (40 mg/day). More evidence is needed to determine whether vitamin B6 supplements might help prevent or treat cognitive decline in elderly people. Vitamins occur naturally in foods such as meat, poultry, nuts, whole grains, bananas, and avocados. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans describes a healthy eating pattern as one that: This fact sheet by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) provides information that should not take the place of medical advice. Vitamin B6 supplements are available in oral capsules or tablets (including sublingual and chewable tablets) and liquids. For example, some experts believe that high doses of vitamin B-6 produce neurological symptoms, such as ataxia (which affects coordination), as well as decreased muscle tone. Arthritis Res Ther 2005;7:R1404-11. Epilepsy Res 2008;82:1-6. The table of selected food sources of vitamin B6 suggests many dietary sources of vitamin B6. Vitamin B-6 is a water-soluble vitamin, found in the whey protein content of cheese. Although the body absorbs large pharmacological doses of vitamin B6 well, it quickly eliminates most of the vitamin in the urine . … Dietary sources of nutrients among US adults, 1989 to 1991. Do not use this medicine in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Lowering homocysteine in patients with ischemic stroke to prevent recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and death: the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) randomized controlled trial. Any mention in this publication of a specific product or service, or recommendation from an organization or professional society, does not represent an endorsement by ODS of that product, service, or expert advice. As a result, the PLP in cells might be more susceptible to hydrolysis by membrane-bound phosphatase. The Health and Brain Benefits of Vitamin B6. J Obstet Gynaecol 2006;26:749-51. Vitamin B6 in coenzyme forms performs a wide variety of functions in the body and is extremely versatile, with involvement in more than 100 enzyme reactions, mostly concerned with protein metabolism . For infants from birth to 12 months, the FNB established an AI for vitamin B6 that is equivalent to the mean intake of vitamin B6 in healthy, breastfed infants. Some research has associated low plasma vitamin B6 concentrations with an increased risk of certain kinds of cancer . Plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the US population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004. JAMA 2009;302:2119-26. Part I--Folate, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6. The Keystone B-6 was a biplane bomber developed by the Keystone Aircraft company for the United States Army Air Corps. Vitamin B6 is vitamin B6. Proof : (A+B) • (A-B) = A 2 - AB + BA - B 2 = A 2 - AB + AB - B 2 = A 2 - B 2 Note : AB = BA is the commutative property of multiplication. Call your doctor at … The federal government's 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans notes that "Nutritional needs should be met primarily from foods. Pub. J Am Diet Assoc 1998;98:537-47. People with poor renal function, including those with end-stage renal disease and chronic renal insufficiency, often have low vitamin B6 concentrations . Vitamin B 6, water-soluble organic compound that is an essential micronutrient for microorganisms and animals. Do not Use extra medicine to make up the missed dose. Adults aged 51 years or older and children younger than 9 are more likely than members of other age groups to take supplements containing vitamin B6. JAMA 2004;291:565-75. Whether lower pyridoxine doses have any effect is not known . You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. [, Major P, Greenberg E, Khan A, Thiele EA. A new study shows a … Before taking a vitamin B6 supplement, pregnant women should consult a physician because doses could approach the UL. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): Average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97%–98%) healthy individuals; often used to plan nutritionally adequate diets for individuals. The scientific literature includes isolated case reports of congenital defects in the infants of women who took pyridoxine supplements during the first half of pregnancy . The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed DVs to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of foods and dietary supplements within the context of a total diet. However, celiac disease is associated with lower pyridoxine absorption, and low PLP concentrations in inflammatory bowel disease could be due to the inflammatory response . [, Chiang EP, Selhub J, Bagley PJ, Dallal G, Roubenoff R. Pyridoxine supplementation corrects vitamin B6 deficiency but does not improve inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The FNB noted that although several reports show sensory neuropathy occurring at doses lower than 500 mg/day, studies in patients treated with vitamin B6 (average dose of 200 mg/day) for up to 5 years found no evidence of this effect. For more information about building a healthy diet, refer to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate. J Nutr 2011;141:261-6. Select one or more newsletters to continue. [, Simpson JL, Bailey LB, Pietrzik K, Shane B, Holzgreve W. Micronutrients and women of reproductive potential: required dietary intake and consequences of dietary deficiency or excess. Vitamin B6 may be only part of a complete program of treatment that also includes a special diet. [, Merrill AH, Jr., Henderson JM. Plant foods lose the least during processing, as they contain mostly pyridoxine, which is far more stable than the pyridoxal or pyridoxamine found in animal foods. Diseases associated with defects in vitamin B6 metabolism or utilization. [, Bendich A. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): Maximum daily intake unlikely to cause adverse health effects. Ask a doctor or pharmacist if it is safe for you to use Vitamin B6 if: you take other medications or herbal products; or. The richest sources of vitamin B6 include fish, beef liver and other organ meats, potatoes and other starchy vegetables, and fruit (other than citrus). The human body absorbs vitamin B6 in the jejunum. Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222. Patients treated with theophylline often have low plasma PLP concentrations, which could contribute to the neurological and central nervous system side effects associated with theophylline, including seizures [9,35]. Vitamin B6 deficiency causes biochemical changes that become more obvious as the deficiency progresses . Other water-soluble nutrients found in whey include thiamin (vitamin B-1), riboflavin (vitamin B-2), folate, and niacin (vitamin B-3). In a trial of adults who had suffered a nondisabling stroke, supplementation with high or low doses of a combination of vitamins B6 and B12 and folic acid for 2 years had no effect on subsequent stroke incidence, cardiovascular events, or risk of death . The FNB has established ULs for vitamin B6 that apply to both food and supplement intakes (Table 3) . Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. In: Bowman B, Russell R, eds. FDA required manufacturers to use these new labels starting in January 2020, but companies with annual sales of less than $10 million may continue to use the old labels that list a vitamin B6 DV of 2.0 mg until January 2021 [6,8]. Vitamin B6 deficiency is associated with microcytic anemia, electroencephalographic abnormalities, dermatitis with cheilosis (scaling on the lips and cracks at the corners of the mouth) and glossitis (swollen tongue), depression and confusion, and weakened immune function [1,2]. McCormick D. Vitamin B6. Although this condition is generally known as "morning sickness," it often lasts throughout the day. Several studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin B6 and brain function in the elderly. Exp Neurol 2004;190:133-44. [, Saposnik G, Ray JG, Sheridan P, McQueen M, Lonn E. Homocysteine-lowering therapy and stroke risk, severity, and disability: additional findings from the HOPE 2 trial. [, Kashanian M, Mazinani R, Jalalmanesh S. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) therapy for premenstrual syndrome. Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels and Serving Sizes of Foods That Can Reasonably Be Consumed at One Eating Occasion; Dual-Column Labeling; Updating, Modifying, and Establishing Certain Reference Amounts Customarily Consumed; Serving Size for Breath Mints; and Technical Amendments; Proposed Extension of Compliance Dates. Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 7 Dec 2020), Cerner Multum™ (updated 4 Dec 2020), ASHP (updated 3 Dec 2020) and others. N Engl J Med 2010;363:1544-50. The potential for dietary supplements to reduce premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms. This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. Levetiracetam (Keppra®) is an antiepileptic medication with behavioral side effects that include irritability, agitation, and depression [40,41,42]. Tell each of your healthcare providers about all your medical conditions, allergies, and all medicines you use. According to this review, most of the studies were of low quality and limited applicability. Isolated vitamin B6 deficiency is uncommon; inadequate vitamin B6 status is usually associated with low concentrations of other B-complex vitamins, such as vitamin B12 and folic acid . Vitamin B-6 can also be taken as a supplement, typically as an oral capsule, tablet or liquid.People who have kidney disease or conditions that prevent the small intestine from absorbing nutrients from foods (malabsorption syndromes) are more likely to be vitamin B-6 deficient. High homocysteine levels in antiepileptic drug users might increase the risk of epileptic seizures and systemic vascular events, including stroke, and reduce the ability to control seizures in patients with epilepsy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;173:881-4. Vitamin B6 is important for heart health, the digestive tract, muscular function, energy, and a whole lot of other bodily processes, too. Combined analyses and extended follow-up of two randomized controlled homocysteine-lowering B-vitamin trials. May Promote Brain Health and Reduce Alzheimer’s Risk. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2009;19:209-11. Exemption (b)(6) permits the government to withhold all information about individuals in "personnel and medical files and similar files" when the disclosure of such information "would constitute a clearly … But don't go rushing to the supplement aisle just yet. Pyridoxine-induced toxicity in rats: a stereological quantification of the sensory neuropathy. BMJ 1999;318:1375-81. The effect of vitamin B6 on cognition. Although vitamin B6 shows promise for alleviating PMS symptoms, more research is needed before drawing firm conclusions. Randomized trials have shown that a combination of vitamin B6 and doxylamine (an antihistamine) is associated with a 70% reduction in nausea and vomiting in pregnant women and lower hospitalization rates for this problem [27,31]. In addition, vitamin B6 deficiency can result from malabsorption syndromes, such as celiac disease, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. [, Toole JF, Malinow MR, Chambless LE, Spence JD, Pettigrew LC, Howard VJ, et al. Vitamin B6, also called pyridoxine, is a water-soluble nutrient that is part of the B vitamin family. [. Vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine) is important for normal brain development and for keeping the nervous system and immune system healthy.Food sources of vitamin B-6 include poultry, fish, potatoes, chickpeas and bananas. Vitamin B6 can interact with certain medications, and several types of medications might adversely affect vitamin B6 levels. JAMA 2008;299:2027-36. Individuals taking these and other medications on a regular basis should discuss their vitamin B6 status with their healthcare providers. Absorption of vitamin B6 from supplements is similar to that from food sources and does not differ substantially among the various forms of supplements . about your interest in, questions about, or use of dietary supplements and what may be best for your overall health. Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Follow all directions on your prescription label. Injectable this medicine is injected into a muscle or into a vein through an IV. Vitamin B6 also plays a role in cognitive development through the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters and in maintaining normal levels of homocysteine, an amino acid in the blood . Cancer incidence and mortality after treatment with folic acid and vitamin B12. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): Average daily level of intake estimated to meet the requirements of 50% of healthy individuals; usually used to assess the nutrient intakes of groups of people and to plan nutritionally adequate diets for them; can also be used to assess the nutrient intakes of individuals. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003:CD004393. The following groups are among those most likely to have inadequate intakes of vitamin B6. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1990;585:321-30. 9th ed. Obstet Gynecol 1991;78:33-6. It occurs in three forms: pyridoxine (or pyridoxol), pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine. Vitamin B6 concentrations can also be measured indirectly by assessing either erythrocyte aminotransferase saturation by PLP or tryptophan metabolites. For example, an analysis of data from the Boston Normative Aging Study found associations between higher serum vitamin B6 concentrations and better memory test scores in 70 men aged 54–81 years . Therefore, several clinical trials have assessed the safety and efficacy of supplemental doses of B vitamins to reduce heart disease risk. Vitamin B6 may play a role in improving … [, Riggs KM, Spiro A, 3rd, Tucker K, Rush D. Relations of vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, folate, and homocysteine to cognitive performance in the Normative Aging Study. Furthermore, patients typically use antiepileptic drugs for years, increasing their risk of chronic vascular toxicity. For example, an analysis of data from two large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in Norway found no association between vitamin B6 supplementation and cancer incidence, mortality, or all-cause mortality . Copyright 1996-2018 Cerner Multum, Inc. The condition is not life threatening and typically goes away after 12–20 weeks, but its symptoms can disrupt a woman's social and physical functioning. Vitamin B6 side effects. Frank vitamin B6 deficiencies are relatively rare in the United States but some individuals might have marginal vitamin B6 status . J Intern Med 2010;268:367-82. Injectable this medicine must be given by a healthcare professional. It is involved in producing the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine, and in forming myelin. Vitamin B6 concentrations can be measured directly by assessing concentrations of PLP; other vitamers; or total vitamin B6 in plasma, erythrocytes, or urine . Includes a variety of protein foods, including seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, legumes (beans and peas), nuts, seeds, and soy products. [, Malouf R, Grimley Evans J. Vitamin B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation and cognitive function: a systematic review of randomized trials. We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers (doctor, registered dietitian, pharmacist, etc.) Obstet Gynecol 2004;103:803-14. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010:CD007575. Stroke 2009;40:1365-72. Symptom severity appears to be dose dependent, and the symptoms usually stop if the patient discontinues the pyridoxine supplements as soon as the neurologic symptoms appear. In combination with pyridoxal phosphate, cycloserine increases urinary excretion of pyridoxine . Both PLP and PMP are involved in amino acid metabolism, and PLP is also involved in the metabolism of one-carbon units, carbohydrates, and lipids . Cycloserine (Seromycin®) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis. Efficacy of vitamin B-6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: systematic review. [, Albert CM, Cook NR, Gaziano JM, Zaharris E, MacFadyen J, Danielson E, et al. PLP concentrations tend to be low in people with alcohol dependence; those who are obese; and pregnant women, especially those with preeclampsia or eclampsia . However, 11% of vitamin B6 supplement users and 24% of people in the United States who do not take supplements containing vitamin B6 have low plasma PLP concentrations (less than 20 nmol/L) . [, Perry TA, Weerasuriya A, Mouton PR, Holloway HW, Greig NH. “(A) Any action described in subsection (b) of this section. The recommended dietary allowance of pyridoxine increases with age. The mechanisms for this effect are not known. If the patient's condition does not improve, ACOG recommends adding doxylamine. Note : - AB + AB equals zero and is therefore eliminated from the expression. Follow the diet plan created for you by your doctor or nutrition counselor. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) FoodData Central lists the nutrient content of many foods and provides a comprehensive list of foods containing vitamin B6 arranged by nutrient content and by food name. Institute of Medicine. Follow your doctor's instructions about any restrictions on food, beverages, or activity. Some medications, such as antiepileptic drugs, can lead to deficiency over time. Other effects of excessive vitamin B6 intakes include painful, disfiguring dermatological lesions; photosensitivity; and gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea and heartburn [1,2,32]. Your dose needs may be different. Plasma PLP concentrations tend to be very low in people with alcohol dependence . The potential effectiveness of vitamin B6 in alleviating the mood-related symptoms of PMS could be due to its role as a cofactor in neurotransmitter biosynthesis . These low vitamin B6 levels are due to the inflammation caused by the disease and, in turn, increase the inflammation associated with the disease. (b)(10) to (12). Version: 2.04. lorazepam, ondansetron, hydroxyzine, meclizine, diazepam, topiramate, Valium, Zofran, promethazine, levetiracetam. We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information -. Do not give yourself this medicine if you do not understand how to use the injection and properly dispose of needles, IV tubing, and other items used. [, Niebyl JR. Clinical practice. Evaluating the impact of vitamin B6 from many of these trials is challenging because these studies also included folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation. [, Ebbing M, Bonaa KH, Nygard O, Arnesen E, Ueland PM, Nordrehaug JE, et al. ... Foods in nutrient-dense forms contain essential vitamins and minerals and also dietary fiber and other naturally occurring substances that may have positive health effects. About 75% of vitamin B6 from a mixed diet is bioavailable . [, Marino S, Vitaliti G, Marino SD, et al. High levels of circulating homocysteine are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. J Inherit Metab Dis 2006;29:317-26. Vitamin B6 is found in the germ and Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Have a question? Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. Cancer People with low levels of vitamin B6 in … Present Knowledge in Nutrition. Vitamin B6, also known as pyridoxine, is one of the vitamins included in the vitamin B complex family. [, Apeland T, Froyland ES, Kristensen O, Strandjord RE, Mansoor MA. The most common vitamin B6 vitamer in supplements is pyridoxine (in the form of pyridoxine hydrochloride [HCl]), although some supplements contain PLP. Other drugs may interact with pyridoxine, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Pyridoxine add-on treatment for the control of behavioral adverse effects induced by levetiracetam in children: a case-control prospective study. [, Matthews A, Dowswell T, Haas DM, Doyle M, O'Mathuna DP. Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels. Simple and best practice solution for (b-6)(b+6)= equation. Vitamin B6 tablets are taken by mouth. The most common vitamin B6 vitamer in supplements is … However, a systematic review of 14 randomized controlled trials found insufficient evidence of an effect of vitamin B6 supplementation alone or in combination with vitamin B12 and/or folic acid on cognitive function in people with normal cognitive function, dementia, or ischemic vascular disease . [, Morris MS, Picciano MF, Jacques PF, Selhub J. Annu Rev Nutr 1987;7:137-56. For example, a randomized clinical trial in 5,442 women aged 42 or older found no effect of vitamin B6 supplementation (50 mg/day) in combination with 2.5 mg folic acid and 1 mg vitamin B12 on cardiovascular disease risk . JAMA 2010;303:1077-83. It is also used to treat a certain type of anemia (lack of red blood cells). Adequate Intake (AI): Intake at this level is assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy; established when evidence is insufficient to develop an RDA. Ask ODS End-stage renal diseases, chronic renal insufficiency, and other kidney diseases can cause vitamin B6 deficiency . [, Bendich A, Cohen M. Vitamin B6 safety issues. Follow all directions on your medicine label and package. You may also consult the Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrient Database (formerly "Recommended Daily Allowances") listings for more information. Get familiar with the list of foods you should eat or avoid to help control your condition. Mackey A, Davis S, Gregory J. Vitamin B6. Background: Higher plasma concentrations of the vitamin B-6 marker pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) have been associated with reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Among supplement users and nonusers, plasma PLP levels were much lower in women than men, non-Hispanic blacks than non-Hispanic whites, current smokers than never smokers, and people who were underweight than those of normal weight. Teenagers had the lowest vitamin B6 concentrations, followed by adults aged 21–44 years. Although vitamin B supplements do lower blood homocysteine, research shows that they do not actually reduce the risk or severity of heart disease or stroke. Prospective studies on vitamin B6 supplements to treat morning sickness have had mixed results. Our solution is simple, and easy to understand, so don`t hesitate to use it as a solution of your … Some research also indicates that pyridoxine supplementation (200 mg/day for 12–120 days) can reduce serum concentrations of phenytoin and phenobarbital, possibly by increasing the drugs' metabolism [35,39]. A Cochrane review found no evidence that short-term vitamin B6 supplementation (for 5–12 weeks) improves cognitive function or mood in the two studies that the authors evaluated . Although vitamin B6 supplements can normalize vitamin B6 concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, they do not suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines or decrease levels of inflammatory markers [3,14]. The roots of the quadratic equationax2+bx+c=0;a6= 0 are −b p b2 −4ac 2a The solution set of the equation is (−b+ p 2a −b… Pyridoxine supplementation for the treatment of levetiracetam-induced behavior side effects in children: preliminary results. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov Cooking, storage, and processing losses of vitamin B6 vary and in some foods may be more than 50%, depending on the form of vitamin present in the food. For example, milk can lose 30–70% of its vitamin B6 content when dried. ULs are lower for children and adolescents based on body size. It is the generic name for six compounds (vitamers) with vitamin B6 activity: pyridoxine, an alcohol; pyridoxal, an aldehyde; and pyridoxamine, which contains an amino group; and their respective 5'-phosphate esters. [, Davis GP, McCarthy JT, Magill DB, Coffey B. Behavioral effects of levetiracetam mitigated by pyridoxine. Non-nutritional uses of vitamin B6. Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. 2 29. if a+ ib=0 wherei= p −1, then a= b=0 30. if a+ ib= x+ iy,wherei= p −1, then a= xand b= y 31. The combined analysis of data from these two trials showed no benefit of vitamin B6 supplementation, with or without folic acid (0.8 mg/day) plus vitamin B12 (0.4 mg/day), on major cardiovascular events in 6,837 patients with ischemic heart disease . To make sure you can safely receive injectable Vitamin B6, tell your doctor if you have heart disease or kidney disease. About half of all women experience nausea and vomiting in the first few months of pregnancy, and about 50%–80% experience nausea only [27,28]. [, Clayton PT. Vitamin B6 drug interactions (in more detail). The ULs do not apply to individuals receiving vitamin B6 for medical treatment, but such individuals should be under the care of a physician. L. 105–339, § 6… decreased sensation to touch, temperature, and vibration; numbness in your feet or around your mouth; This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Ann Pharmacother 2018;52:645-9. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005. Severe sensorimotor neuropathy after intake of highest dosages of vitamin B6. [, Hansson O, Sillanpaa M. Letter: Pyridoxine and serum concentration of phenytoin and phenobarbitone. A few examples are provided below. Ask a doctor before using this medicine if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Most children, adolescents, and adults in the United States consume the recommended amounts of vitamin B6, according to an analysis of data from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) . However, plasma PLP levels in the elderly were not particularly low, even in those who did not use supplements. Subscribe to Drugs.com newsletters for the latest medication news, new drug approvals, alerts and updates. Vitamin B6 is one of the B vitamins that benefits the central nervous system. The urinary loss of pyridoxine might exacerbate the seizures and neurotoxicity associated with cycloserine. Patients with celiac disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and other malabsorptive autoimmune disorders tend to have low plasma PLP concentrations . Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in many foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Intake recommendations for vitamin B6 and other nutrients are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the FNB . People with rheumatoid arthritis often have low vitamin B6 concentrations, and vitamin B6 concentrations tend to decrease with increased disease severity .